The Parade Game illustrates the impact work flow variability has
on the performance of construction trades and their successors.
The game consists of simulating a construction process in which
resources produced by one trade are prerequisite to work
performed by the next trade. Production-level detail, describing
resources being passed from one trade to the next, illustrates
that throughput will be reduced, project completion delayed, and
waste increased by variations in flow. The game shows that it is
possible to reduce waste and shorten project duration by
reducing the variability in work flow between trades. Basic
production management concepts are thus applied to construction
management. They highlight two shortcomings of using CPM for
field-level planning: CPM makes modeling the dependence of
ongoing activities between trades or with operations unwieldy
and it does not explicitly represent variability. The Parade
Game can be played in a classroom setting either by hand or
using a computer. Computer simulation enables students to
experiment with numerous alternatives in order to sharpen their
intuition regarding variability, process throughput, buffers,
productivity, and crew sizing. Managers interested in schedule
compression will benefit from understanding work flow
variability’s impact on succeeding trade performance.
More detail on the game is given in the following papers:
- Tommelein, I.D., Riley, D., and Howell, G.A. (1998). "Parade
Game: Impact of Work Flow Variability on Succeeding Trade Performance."
Proc. Sixth Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction,
IGLC-6, 13-15 August held in Guaruja, Brazil, 14 pp.
- Tommelein, I.D., Riley, D., and Howell, G.A. (1999). "Parade Game: Impact
of Work Flow Variability on Trade Performance." ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg.
and Mgmt., Sept/Oct Issue.
The Parade Game simulation was originally developed by Iris Tommelein, as
part of her research on lean construction and new technologies for materials
management. This work is funded by grant CMS-9622308 from the National Science
Foundation, whose support is gratefully acknowledged. Any opinions, findings,
conclusions, or recommendations expressed on this site are those of the authors
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Parade of Trades:
A Computer Game for Understanding Variability and Dependence
by Hyun Jeong Choo and
Iris D. Tommelein
Computer Game Instructions
The documentation presented below of the computer implementation of the
Parade Game, developed by Huyn Jeong Choo, is written up as (click on the
title below to download the .pdf file):
H.J. and Tommelein, I.D. (1999). "Parade
of Trades: A Computer Game for Understanding Variability and Dependence."
Technical Report 99-1, Construction Engineering and Management
Program, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of
California, Berkeley, September.
Please cite this document when referencing the
computer game described on this web page.
The Parade of Trades computer program simulates a dice game. The purpose
of this game is to demonstrate the impact variability and dependence have in
a construction environment where multiple trades follow each other in a
linear sequence and work output by one trade is handed off to the next
trade. The term "parade of trades" was coined by Gus Sestrup, a
superintendent with Turner Construction.
Greg Howell used the Parade of Trades Game at the
Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction and the
Lean Construction Institute
has been using it at many of their workshops to demonstrate the effects of
variability and dependence on work flow. The game was studied and documented
in detail by Tommelein et al. (1998, 1999). They used Stroboscope (Martinez
1996) to simulate the Parade Game and collect statistics from the
simulation. Alarcon and Ashley (1999) used @Risk (1997) to simulate a
slightly modified dice game and analyzed its impact on project cost and
The present program allows a user to simulate the Parade Game on a
computer. By automatically keeping track of the number of rolls (executions
per trade), the number of outputs passed to the next trade, and the number
of outputs in each buffer between trades, the program helps the user
understand what impact variability and dependence may have on work flow.
Click here to see Game Manuals and Instructions
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